Prof Andy Gardner:
Professor of Biology

Research Overview:

I work on Darwinian adaptation. Natural selection explains the appearance of design in the living world, but at what level is this design expected to manifest – gene, individual, society – and what is its function? Social evolution provides a window on this problem, by pitting the interests of genes, individuals and societies against each other. I develop general theory on the topics of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection, and also tailor general theory to the biology of particular species to facilitate empirical testing. I work on a wide range of biological systems, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, crustaceans, insects, fish and humans. Visit my webpage at for more information.


5 (of 143 /dk/atira/pure/researchoutput/status/published available) for ag243 (source: University of St Andrews PURE)
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Does kin discrimination promote cooperation? Gonçalo Faria, Andy Gardner
Biology Letters 2020 vol. 16
Price's equation made clear Andy Gardner
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. B, Biological Sciences 2020 vol. 375
The demography of human warfare can drive sex differences in altruism Alberto Jacopo Cesare Micheletti, Graeme Douglas Ruxton, Andy Gardner
Evolutionary Human Sciences 2020 vol. 2
Author Correction Mauricio Gonzalez Forero, Andy Gardner
Nature 2019 vol. 567